Monday, December 30, 2019

Critical Analysis of Fire and Ice - 2011 Words

Critical Analysis of Fire and Ice One said, Poetry is when an emotion has found its thought and the thought has found words. Four time Pulitzer Prize winning American poet, teacher, and lecturer, Robert Frost quoted this. Frost was born in 1874 and died in January of 1963. He lived in New England for practically his whole life, only moving to England for a short time to pursue his writing career in which he wrote many popular and oft-quoted poems. In his poem, Fire and Ice, Frost uses imagery, diction and metaphors to create the themes of desire and hate, nature and its meaning, and opposites. Tom Hanson figures that the speaker is in first person in Fire and Ice. (Hanson 27) The speaker simply expresses an opinion instead†¦show more content†¦(Fire and Ice 58) Frost wants the reader to realize that neither fire nor desire is always bad. (59) Both are necessary in life. It is only when the fire is uncontrolled that it grows and consumes all that is around it. (59) The very vagueness of the opening word, Some, gives the poem a feeling of vagueness or speculation. (Meyer 62) Saying that ice would suffice, or be sufficient, is a rather casual way to refer to the destructive powers it holds and it implies that such an event will not actually come to pass. (Fire and Ice 58) Suffice implies that something is complete or has run its course but it could still do more or could still be continuing in some way. (63) Ice technically ends the world of the poem. (Leger 114) Not only does it become the last verbal image, but the last three letters of the verse spell ice. (114) The ice of Frosts poem never seems to go away. (Meyer 64) It can suffice because there is always something more to it, something preserving, chilling and imperishable. (64) In Frost poem, fire and ice are repeated twice for emphasis. (64) This is a gesture where the poet draws particular attention to an idea, or an image, almost as if he is repeating it in case the reader misse d it or didnt get it the first time. (64) Ice is rhymed with twice almost as if the poet is trying to let us in on his little joke ofShow MoreRelatedLiterary Analysis Of Wallace Stevens : The Emperor Of Ice Cream1463 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"The Emperor of Ice-Cream†: Works Cited Allen, Austin. â€Å"Wallace Stevens: ‘The Emperor of Ice-Cream’.† Poetry Foundation, Poetry Foundation, The article was written by Austin Allen. His biography on the site reads that he has won a poetry award and that he frequently writes poems and essays that are known world-wide. This means his article is at least somewhat reliable. This site analyzes the poem thoroughly, diggingRead MoreEssay on Robert Frosts Life and Accomplishments1244 Words   |  5 Pagesthey display a much deeper meaning of life. These poems help to show people just some of the difficult things that will be faced in life, despite everything done to prevent them from happening. In particular, his poems â€Å"Nothing Gold Can Stay,† â€Å"Fire and Ice,† and â€Å"Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening,† incorporate this meaning into them while on the surface, they seem like just simple poems about nature. After a closer look into Frost’s life, it can be determined that he had a whirlwind of experiencesRead MoreEssay on Anti-War Sentiments in Cats Cradle and Slaughterhouse Five1173 Words   |  5 Pagesteapot shortly after hundreds of thousands are massacred in the Dresden fire bombings. Another instance of an ironic death is when Billy Pilgrim and Ronald Weary join the two infantry scouts. Ironically, Pilgrim and Weary, who lack any significant military training, are not killed and the highly trained scouts are. Maybe the single greatest example of irony in Slaughterhouse Five is when the bird remarks poo-tee-weet, after the fire bombings. This a nonsensical thing to say following such a massacreRead More Who Tamed Fire First? Essay887 Words   |  4 PagesWho Tamed Fire First? The farther back in time we explore, the more room there seems to be for discrepancy among various theories regarding the history of the earth. One of the many disputed aspects of history concerns the nature of the relationship between humans and the environment. This paper will focus on the debate of the origin of first tamed fire. Was it Homo erectus or Homo sapiens? The widely accepted big bang theory of evolution paints Homo erectus as no more than a smart apeRead MoreCrisis Management of Potential Site Risks in Quebec1776 Words   |  7 PagesQuebec region (pp.10-12). Ice Storm As discussed by Karsh (2009) ice storms are the one of climate extremes model which has been impacting in the North America with heavy frequency, severity, and long duration. The frequency and severity of ice storms can increase in some latitudes. The ice storm can strike down transmission lines, and electricity in the numerous of homes. The mixture of icy roads, and strong winds and snow can cause widespread devastation. However, Extreme ice storm is not only emergingRead MoreThe Tell Tale Heart Analysis1295 Words   |  6 Pageshowever Native American cultures uses magic. It can also be said that the style utilizes realistic techniques using narratives with surreal or dreamlike elements. An example of Magic realism in Sherman Alexie’s short story is how Thomas Builds-the-fire jumped off the roof and flapped his arms like an eagle. They describes him as â€Å"flying†. The story also likens his broken arm to that of a broken â€Å"wing†. Sherman Alexie uses t his technique as he is an Indigenous American with ancestry for many differentRead MoreCPM or Critical Path Method for Healthcare1099 Words   |  4 Pagesinternal board as also with the contractors. In the mean time another task must be implemented such the maintenance of the existed equipment and facilities, and training on the health and safety regulations: Reformatting to include an extensive Hazard Analysis and Required Safety Equipment section, Updating safety manual, Create and implement a Skills Passport for workers, Create and implement an Operator Training Manual, Employ the Forge Dynamics â€Å"Optic† program to manage personnel, equipment and safetyRead MoreCritical Analysis To Build A Fire944 Words   |  4 PagesCritical Analysis â€Å"To Build a Fire† Jack London used naturalism in â€Å"To Build a Fire† to help the reader understand the events of everyday life. Naturalism showed just how humans had to be watchful at every corner because at a moment’s notice death could be there, waiting for them to make an error that can cost them their lives. The story is about a man who was on a devastating journey across the Yukon Territory near Alaska. London used the idea of naturalism to help portray how harsh and violentRead More State of Research on the Snowball Earth Hypothesis Essay1410 Words   |  6 Pagesas the Varangia glaciation is a hypothesis presented in 2001 by Geologist Paul Hoffman. (Wikipedia, 2002) The hypothesis purposes that 540 million years ago during the Neoproterozic, a meter thick of ice covered the oceans and glaciers the continents for 100 million years. Albedo; when ice and snow reflect solar radiation into space, in absents of greenhouse gases, which dont exist within the atmosphere, heat therefore escapes the planet. A condition of temperature disequilibrium occurs, whenRead MoreGlobal Warming Warning Essay examples1269 Words   |  6 PagesGlobal Warming Warning In 2007, the Arctic reached a 30-year low for sea ice (University of Colorado at Boulder). This is because of global warming or what scientists refer to climate change. The issue with global warming is that it has impactions for damage to future generations. Prevention of a global climate change depends on early detection of human-made effects on climate. The current views on global warming are; those who do not think that the Earth is undergoing a climate change, others

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Gambling is it Right or Wrong - 2704 Words

Gambling --Is it Right or Wrong Gambling has been around forever, and I am sure it has always been a controversial issue. History and ethnography show us that, across societies of the past and present, gambling varies considerably with respect to its organization, social meanings, and how it is regarded in moral terms. (Binde,2005). Since the time when the guards for Jesus cast lots for his clothes, when Las Vegas was built and now today with the availability of online gambling, this issue has caused concern and had its supporters and opponents. While done responsibly, gambling can be a fun and sometimes rewarding activity. On the other hand it can be a huge problem for some. Gambling is†¦show more content†¦These irresponsible gamblers sometimes even turn to crime to get more money to gamble with. There have been people that stole from friends and family and those that embezzle money and those that steal anything to sell to get money. There are many gambling support groups that help these people as well as church groups and government assistance. The supporters of gambling say that it allows people to have a fun and exciting experience with the thrill of anticipation and the great feeling of winning. Gambling also brings in a large amount of revenue for governments, and creates a lot of jobs at all the places that allow gambling especially casinos. The amount of tourism created by a casino can bring business to restaurants, hotels, shopping centers and other businesses that are near. That can create more jobs and higher property values. This can increase sales tax as well. The revenues are supposedly used for noble causes such as schools, health care, police and fire funding and roads. They say that most people are responsible gamblers and that addiction is only a problem with a small percentage. Many Indian reservations that have casinos on their property have prospered and found work for their people and property values increase. Casinos have been a great economic benefit for Na tive American tribes. The tribes see casinos as a way out of poverty and unemployment. For example, Foxwoods Resort Casino in Ledyard, Connecticut is the state s second-largestShow MoreRelatedGambling Is Not Immoral Or Unethical1406 Words   |  6 PagesGambling In today’s world, there are many different ways to gamble such as casinos, state lotteries, pull tabs, bingo, sporting events, and the internet, just to name a few. Although the popularity of this activity remains strong in America, there are individuals and groups that continue to scrutinize and attack this industry. People strongly opposed to gambling would like to see it policed by the federal government or outlawed completely; they are wrong. There are several positive aspects of gamblingRead MoreShould Gambling Be Legalized?1401 Words   |  6 Pages Gambling is an activity as old as civilization with as many varied forms and practices. From betting on cock fights to Presidential elections, gambling finds itself in a consistent battle with various cultures. No other gambling activity is as popular or as controversial as lotteries. In the United States, gambling had long been illegal. That is largely due to the Christian origins of most state legislation. Of which, the traditional view saw gambling as evil. Over time, more progressive individualsRead MoreWhy Gambling Should Not Be Prohibited Or Policed By The Federal Government1236 Words   |  5 PagesGambling In today’s world there are many different types of gambling such as casinos, state lotteries, pull tabs, bingo, sports and internet gambling. Popularity of this activity remains strong in America, however, there are individuals and groups that continue to scrutinize and attack this industry. I believe gambling is a fun social activity that should not be prohibited or policed by the federal government. It should be an individual’s right to choose if they gamble or not based on theirRead MoreGambling Is Not Only A Fun And Social Activity1288 Words   |  6 PagesGambling In today’s world, there are many different ways to gamble such as casinos, state lotteries, pull tabs, bingo, sporting events and the internet just to name a few. Although the popularity of this activity remains strong in America, there are individuals and groups that continue to scrutinize and attack this industry. Those that are strongly opposed to gambling would like to see it policed by the federal government or outlawed completely; I do not agree. Gambling is not only a fun andRead MoreMoral Relativism And The Biblical Worldview Of What Is Right And Wrong950 Words   |  4 Pagesa worldview that believes otherwise based on the biblical worldview of what is right and wrong proposed by James Sire. Issues that are ethically questionable but not specifically banned in Leviticus, or in the Bible in general, such as gambling, drinking alcohol, and divorce are examples of how even seemingly unclear topics are still outlined by God. The Lord gives Christians the instinctiv e knowledge of right and wrong based on Scripture that does not and will never change, contradictory to the constantlyRead MoreThe Ethics Of Gambling And Gambling1556 Words   |  7 Pagesregarding the ethics of gambling whether in an online setting or in a public setting. Gambling has many benefits for both gamblers and casinos, but it’s crucial to acknowledge the psychological repercussions of gambling as it isn’t always just â€Å"harmless fun.† We can consider the negative and positive implications of gambling on non-gamblers as well. However, how would ethical theories and perspectives differ in their approach to the effects of gambling? When people think of gambling, they usually see flashingRead MoreGambling Essay1011 Words   |  5 Pagesthe bar scene, individuals view gambling as a relaxing and entertaining past time. However, we recently encountered an article by Pathlights entitled â€Å"The Case Against Gambling†. Apparently what we though t was a fun night out, is causing otherwise good citizens to perish under the gambling system. Are we looking at gambling the wrong way? In Gambling There Are No Winners In the article by Pathlights it is made quite clear the major claim is that gambling is impoverishing America. We areRead MoreEssay about Gambling1621 Words   |  7 PagesGambling As time marches on into the twenty first century, gambling has become an increasing problem in the United Sates. The continuing problem has hurt the lives of many often leading to actions such as suicides. The problem with gambling today is it is not taken as a serious problem by the American world. According to Richard Wilhelm, it is thought of as â€Å" a recreational hobby that has little negative affects†(2). Little does much of the public know that gambling is a serious addiction thatRead MoreCasino Gambling Should Be Illegal887 Words   |  4 PagesEnglish110 December 5, 2014 Casino Gambling Should be Illegal in Canada Casino when we hear this word the meaning comes to everyone’s mind- a place of entertainment, a place to try our luck, a place where we can earn with playing. In some sorts we are right casino is a place where we play game like a rolling of dice, playing cards, picking up team, all these games we play using money as a bet to earn more known as casino gambling. These games had meanings that were important to theRead MoreThe Morality Question of Gambling1298 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Introduction The debate on whether or not gambling should be regarded acceptable from a moral point of view has been ongoing for quite a while. However, one aspect of gambling that has been overlooked frequently has got to do with individual freedom. Ordinarily, people should have a right to choose whether or not to engage in gambling. Indeed, the freedom accorded to individuals to engage in activities of their choice as long as they do not interfere with the freedom of others can be regarded

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Ict Movie Maker vs Adobe Premier Pro Free Essays

ICT What Movie Maker is capable of doing Windows movie maker is able of: * Find all your video’s and images * Find any special sounds effects * Find any music * Decide on any written content * Make a rough plan of the running order * Create your movie. Advantages of using Windows Movie Maker 1) It is available free on any windows operating system 2) It is easy to learn 3) It is pretty straight forward 4) You do not need film editing experience in order to use windows media player 5) There are over 130 effects, transitions, titles, and credits available 6) After capture, any clip can be dragged and dropped anywhere on the timeline. Disadvantages of using Windows Movie Maker 1) It suffers from crashes frequently. We will write a custom essay sample on Ict Movie Maker vs Adobe Premier Pro or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2) Program freezes at times. 3) It is not possible to uninstall the program through the add/remove panel. 4) It is not possible to do complex editing. Adobe Premier Pro Advantages of Adobe Premier Pro 1) The software has the ability to go into extensive detail and edit videos within seconds. 2) Larger videos are easier to convert and use in the program although this is not important to my solution as I will only be creating small clips (max. minutes). 3) Contains a feature called timeline which allows for zooming in and out. 4) Several tutorials available online Disadvantages of Adobe Premier Pro 1) More expensive than most other competitive software of the same type. 2) To use the features if the software users are required to view forums, see the help section of Adobes website as most features are more complex than they are required to be and most people are used to. 3) Larger file sizes are left in comparison to other packages, requiring more disk space. How to cite Ict Movie Maker vs Adobe Premier Pro, Papers

Friday, December 6, 2019

Los in Translation Essay Example For Students

Los in Translation Essay Lost in Translation is brilliantly written and directed by Sofia Coppola. It is a comedic drama starring Bill Murray and Scarlett Johansson. They play as Bob Harris and Charlotte, two lost and lonely American souls in a strange land. We study wonderful travelogue, sharp cultural juxtaposition, affectionate love story and a fierce indictment of marriage. We see this through two characters. They bond strongly, if temporarily, and their relationship remains platonic. When they begin to fall in love with each other they begin to emerge from the safe, claustrophobic havens of their hotel rooms to experience all that Japan has to offer for them. Tokyo is an extremely busy city, but the two American still feel lost within the complexity of Japan. Loneliness doesnt always mean that someone is physically separated from loved ones or from people in general. One can be alone in the middle of a crowded room. Just like Bob and Charlotte are alone in the heart of Japan. They both happen to be in T okyo for different reasons and they come from different backgrounds, but neither of them can seem to get beyond their dissatisfactions in order to take in this whole new world. With the language barriers, the indecipherable television programs and their personal problems, they look at Japan as a puzzle that cannot be possibly be put together in a matter of days. As the film opens, Bob Harris has just arrived in Japan to do a series of whiskey commercials. For a few days of work he will earn two million dollars. His journey from the airport to the hotel he is confronted with his own picture in an ad amongst the bright neon glitter of central Tokyo at night. Bob seems disinterested in his marriage and career. He makes calls back home to his wife, whose passion also seems to have flamed out. Bob and his wife hint at each other that they both dont really care what the other really has to say. On the other hand, Bob still loves his children very much. While Charlotte and John (Giovanni Ribisi), married for two years, have a passion-free relationship. John and Charlotte tell each other that they love each other so often; they seem to be trying to convince themselves. Yet, Charlotte still follows her self-obsessed photographer husband. Charlotte is having grave doubts about her husband, her career potential (she wants to be a writer) and, her place in life. She searches for meaning in her life. Bob and Charlottes life struggles lie deeper than what one person can provide, especially the person they have chosen to settle down with. Bob and Charlotte are married people, but they are also very lonely people. Charlotte doesnt know her place in li fe as she sadly says to Bob Im stuck. She doesnt know what to do for the rest of her life, so she is confused and disoriented in her own life. Coppola shows that the two are lost not merely because of where they are, but who they are. Charlotte lounges sadly in her hotel room. She sits on the windowsill and gazes out over the city in daylight, listening to a self-help CD. Its a convincing portrait of depression. Bobs room is entirely dark and wood-coloured. His solitude doesnt take the form of gazing out, but of mindless activity. He tries to go to the gym, swimming at the hotel pool, watching television, taking a bath and sitting alone at the hotel bar. Bob and charlotte meet in the hotel bar. Charlotte and Bob ponder about their confusion and share an unmistakable connection that transcends speech. Its in the small, quiet moments that the movie soars. Perfectly capturing a travelers inability to sleep while he tries his best to shut out the world around him and fall asleep. Withou t the use of subtitles, Coppola forces the viewers to feel just as lost as Bob. When the Japanese do speak to him in English, he is sometimes just as confused as when their words are translated for him. Throughout the film, Coppola trusts the viewers intelligence, assuming that we dont need everything spelled out for us. During the film, the beautiful and subtle moments depicted within the Japanese culture, which were deliberately placed there to juxtapose the flashier sides of Japan from the flower arranging scene, to the temples, to the cinematography that beautifully captured the urban beauty of Tokyo. Tokyo is portrayed as a gorgeous city of lights and constant activity. Moments of claustrophobic city living, such as an insanely cramped apartment party, are offset by stunning urban shots. For example, while Bob Harris plays golf in the shadow of Mount Fuji. These short and silent shots in the film bring in the deepest meanings of the entire film. The montage exaggerates the sens e of isolation and loneliness. Sofia Coppolas scripts are especially spare and short, allowing these silences to say more then a mouthful of most carefully chosen words. Sofia Coppola shows the expressive power of the static shot. She uses this shot many times during the film, even in the very first scene of the film. The tone achieved is alive. The world of Lost In Translation is complex. The combined elements of cinematic technique visualization, sound, performance feed off of each other in each sequences, filled with juxtaposed images and montage shots. In Lost In Translation windows appear often, a repeating pattern of the mediated gaze. The Americans are on the inside of the glass, looking out. Coppola displays an effortless mastery of visual language, constructing transparent layers to suggest her themes. One marvelously delicate scene shows the two characters in conversation, but we only see their reflections in a window, through which we can see the expanse of night-time Tok yo blooming with glittering lights. The scene immediately precedes and prepares the moment that the characters finally open to each other: Does it get any easier?Coppola uses natural sounds to create a rich texture that describes the city as well, and as specifically, as the visuals do. When Bob carries Charlotte through a dark hotel in the middle of the night, the gentle whirr of a distant vacuum cleaner, the hum of fluorescent lights and his footfalls on the carpet combine into a delicate trance. A light-hearted chase scene through a parlor reveals in playful virtuosity, the chimes of the gambling machines and the coins in the slot tinkling and rattling, panning quickly as the characters run. In many of the scenes, Coppolas own memories unfold onscreen. Through Charlotte we experience the all the familiarity of culture shock in Tokyo: the gloriously messy and crowded subway and the alienation from not speaking the language. When they venture out on the streets, we are treated to v isual adventures in restaurants, nightclubs, a strip joint, a Buddhist temple and a video arcade. How the central characters chose to deal with this world is one of the focal points of the film, its their common bond as outsiders sharing the common experience of their own alienation and loneliness that brings them together. They experienced a culture by interacting with the people. The karaoke scene was an example of bonding with another culture. At Karaoke, the characters that have been unable to speak their problems before fall in love through singing songs. The filmmaker often speaks through the songs to touching or humorous effect. Their songs, in this potent and perfectly performed scene, summarize the essence of the tension in the movie: they are special, and theyve found each other, but like a dream, theres nothing more. And there can never be. The two characters are in focus, and everything around them is a blur. .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf , .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf .postImageUrl , .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf , .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf:hover , .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf:visited , .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf:active { border:0!important; } .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf:active , .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u80ab647fca2972bd1099b9fd512decaf:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Enterprise project management EssayLike a good dream, Sofia Coppolas Lost In Translation envelops you with a feeling of fantastic light, moody sounds, head-turning love, and a feeling of dj vu even though you may have never been to Tokyo.

Friday, November 29, 2019

A Book report on Celia, A Slave essays

A Book report on Celia, A Slave essays Celia, A Slave by Melton A. McLaurin In the book Celia, A Slave by Melton A. McLaurin, the accounts of one womans life are bound together in a vivid way to relay the circumstances surrounding a female slaves cruel life. The life of this woman named Celia was filled with acts of molestation, rape, murder, and eventual execution. Through the use of court records, correspondences, and newspaper accounts, the author delineated in chronological order the life of Celia: from her purchase by Robert Newsom to her execution on December 21, 1855. When Robert Newsom bought Celia from an unnamed person, the first night that he spent with her he raped Celia. This act was repeated numerously throughout the next five years. It is told to the reader that Celia almost certainly was purchased to replace Newsoms wife who had died months earlier. After years of sexual torment and abuse, Celia killed her master and burned his body to avoid being caught. However, she was caught, tried, and executed for her crime. This of course was not the whole story. Many factors come into play when explaining why Celia murdered Robert Newsom and determining the right course of action for her punishment. The factors influencing Celias behavior can be attributed to the years of rape sustained by Celia. In addition to the emotional instability that encourages Celia to murder Newsom is the ultimatum given by Celias lover, George, to quit the old man (30) or risk losing him as a companion. Also, many people had the opportunity to stand up for Celia and stop the abuse, but for personal reasons, those who knew of the crimes chose to remain quiet. All of these factors have the same thing in common: they each present a person or persons dealing with their own personal dilemmas. In the case of Celia, she could stand up to her master and face physical and emotional punishment and possibly death. It was a choice for h...

Monday, November 25, 2019

Using the Spanish Verb Tratar

Using the Spanish Verb 'Tratar' It may not seem logical that the same Spanish verb might mean to try and to treat, but such is the case with tratar. Tratar is a fairly common verb that also has other meanings that dont seem particularly related. In general, though, the word has to do with dealing with a person, activity, or thing. Often, the meaning of tratar depends on the preposition that follows, although even that isnt always a sure guide. Perhaps more so than with most verbs, you need to rely on the context of the sentence to determine the meaning. Common Meanings of Tratar by Itself One of the most typical uses of tratar is to refer to treating someone or something in a specified way: Nos trataban como a animales y en ocasiones peor. (They treated us like animals and sometimes worse.)Siempre he estado en paz debido a la forma en que mi madre me tratà ³. (I have always been at peace because of the way my mother treated me.) ¡No me trates como a un nià ±o! (Dont treat me as a child!) More specifically, tratar is often used to refer to medical treatment. La enfermedad de Lyme se trata con antibià ³ticos. (Lymes disease is treated with antibiotics.)Los mà ©dicos van a tratar de detener la hemorragia con medicamentos. (The doctors are going use a treatment of stopping the hemorrhage with medications.)Trataron el dolor con morfina por casi una semana. (They treated the pain with morphine for almost a week.)El hospicio trata al paciente como a una persona en su totalidad. (A hospice treats the patient as a person in his or her totality.) Using Tratar With De When tratar is followed by the preposition de and an infinitive, it meant to try or attempt: Aquà ­ no tratamos de ganar mentes y corazones, porque es irrelevante. (Here we are not trying to win hearts and minds, because it is irrelevant.)Trate de nadar por lo menos una hora y quince minutos. (Try to swim at least an hour and 15 minutes.)Los participantes del estudio que fotografiaron sus alimentos perdieron ms peso que aquellos que simplemente trataron de comer ms sanamente. (The study participants who photographed their food lost more weight than those who simply tried to eat more healthily.)Tratarà © de esturiar todos los dà ­as que pueda excepto los lunes. (I will try to study every day I can except for Mondays.)Trata de ponerte en mis zapatos. (Try to put yourself in my shoes.) When the reflexive form tratarse is followed by de, it indicates the subject of something or what its about. Fahrenheit 451 trata de una sociedad totalitaria donde los libros estn prohibidos. (Fahrenheit 451 is about a totalitarian society where books are banned.)Se trata del coche de mi padre, doy una opinià ³n de primera mano. (On the subject of my fathers car, I am giving a firsthand opinion.) ¿De quà © trata? Whats it about?La vida se trata de contentamiento y gratitud. (Life is about contentment and gratitude.) Using Tratar With Con When either tratar or tratarse is followed by con, the preposition usually meaning with, it can refer to a relationship between two or more parties. Note that in some contexts, tratar con can instead me to treat with. Este cambio afectar la manera en que usted trata con su compaà ±Ãƒ ­a de telà ©fonos. (This change will affect the way you do business with your phone company.)Con respecto al amor, no me trato con gente mayor que yo. (When it comes to romance, I dont have relationships with people older than I am.)Sin embargo, muchas veces se tratà ³ con à ©l. (Nevertheless, I often had dealings with him.)Los compaà ±eros tratan con mucho respeto. (The companions treat each other with great respect.) Key Takeaways Tratar often means to treat, as in treating someone or something a certain way, or in providing medical treatment.Tratar de when followed an infinitive usually means to try or attempt.Tratarse de is used to indicate what something is about.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

IP 5A English Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

IP 5A English - Essay Example Despite this, I felt that this course gave me a direction that I needed. Previously, I had been unable to process as to how I should approach my passion for writing but this course opened a lot of opportunities for me. This did not come all of a sudden but with each assignment, I felt that I came closer to my goal. My biggest achievement in this course was the confidence I got. I learnt that writing is an acquired ability and practice will help me improve upon that ability. The discussion questions further allowed me to understand my strength in the class. My only disappointment is that I was not able to give my cent percent to this course. The stress from hospitalization prevented me from exploring my writing talent to the best of my abilities. I think I would have excelled if not for the deterrent. But despite this, I know that this course gave me the framework from which I could built my future in writing. I believe more reading on this course would have helped the students to explore more writing styles and perspectives. Overall, this course gave me a lot to move forward with. The discussion questions opened up not just new perspectives but better

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Country Analysis Bangladesh Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Country Analysis Bangladesh - Essay Example The rural birth rate was higher than birth rates in urban areas; in 1985 there were 36.3 births per 1,000 in the countryside versus 28 per 1,000 in urban areas. The crude death rate per 1,000 people decreased from 40.7 in 1951 to 12 per 1,000 in 1985; the urban crude death rate was 8.3, and the rural crude death rate was 12.9. The infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births was 111.9 in 1985, a distinct improvement from as recently as 1982, when the rate was 121.9. Life expectancy at birth was estimated at 55.1 years in 1986. Men and women have very similar life expectancies at 55.4 and 55, respectively. Population Distribution: In the late 1980s, about 82 percent of the population of Bangladesh (a total of 15.1 million households) resided in rural areas. With the exception of parts of Sylhet and Rangamati regions, where settlements occurred in nucleated or clustered patterns, the villages were scattered collections of homesteads surrounded by trees. Continuous strings of settlements along the roadside were also common in the southeastern part of the country. Until the 1980s, Bangladesh was the most rural nation in South Asia. In 1931 only 27 out of every 1,000 persons were urban dwellers in what is now Bangladesh. In 1931 Bangladesh had fifty towns; by 1951 the country had eighty-nine towns, cities, and municipalities. During the 1980s, industrial development began to have a small effect on urbanization. The 1974 census had put the urban population of Bangladesh at 8.8 percent of the total; by 1988 that proportion had reached 18 percent and was projected to rise to 30 percent by th e year 2000. Figure 1.1 - Bangladesh Population Graph Urbanization: In 1981 only two cities, Dhaka and Chittagong, had more than 1 million residents. Seven other cities--Narayanganj, Khulna, Barisal, Saidpur, Rajshahi, Mymensingh, and Comilla--each had more than 100,000 people. Of all the expanding cities, Dhaka, the national capital and the principal seat of culture, had made the most gains in population, growing from 335,928 in 1951 to 3.4 million in 1981. rank country population 2005 1. China 1,315,844,000 2. India 1,103,371,000 3. USA 298,213,000 4. Indonesia 222,781,000 5. Brazil 186,405,000 6. Pakistan 157,935,000 7. Russia 143,202,000 8. Bangladesh 141,822,000 9. Nigeria 131,530,000 10. Japan 128,085,000 Figure 1.2 - World Population Table RESOURCES Migration: Internal migration indicated several recognizable trends. Because of increasing population pressure, people in the 1980s were moving into areas of relatively light habitation in the Chittagong Hills and in parts of the Sundarbans previously considered marginally habitable. Agrarian distress caused some movement to urban areas, especially Dhaka. Because of the inhospitable urban environment and the lack of jobs, many newcomers returned at least temporarily to their villages, especially during the harvest season. Unemployment, however, was even

Monday, November 18, 2019

Radio summury Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Radio summury - Essay Example They are of compelling topics, and they aim at advertising new music (Bing, Alison, & John, 314). It is an engaging program that an individual does not get tired of listening. The reception from the listeners is positive, and this markets the program. In addition, the songs played deliver significant messages to the people. It promotes cultural diversity, which directly facilitates peace and cohesion among the people. However, the show would be livelier in the presence of co-host. One hour a long time for one host and he gets tired and bored during the show. Also, to criticize the music two parties are required because one person cannot praise and criticize the same song. In addition, there many callers at the same time and this cause delays in the program. During commercial breaks, advertisements appealing to the listeners to support the program are aired. This is a brilliant strategy for the station to get funds from well wishers who are fans of the show, Music from Other Minds. : 50 Contests (the host tell the listeners to vote for their best song by sending certain codes for the songs to get the song of the day. He also asks a question based on the played songs where the winner gets a free copy of the songs tape and compact disc.) : 58 Ending remarks (the song that has the majority votes is announced and the listener who won the question of the day is rewarded. The host ends the show with the winning song playing- Beyonce Knowles

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Profiling Genome of Tibetan Chicken

Profiling Genome of Tibetan Chicken Profiling the genome-wide DNAmethylation pattern of Tibetan chicken  using whole genome bisulfite sequencing Abstract Background: Tibetan chickens living at high altitudes show specific adaptations to high-altitude conditions, but the epigenetic modification bases of these adaptations havent been characterized. Results: We investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in Tibetan chicken blood using whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS). Generally, Tibetan chicken exhibited analogous methylation pattern with that of lowland chiken. A total of 3.92% of genomic cytosines were methylcytosines, and 51.22% of cytosines in CG contexts were methylated which was less than those in lowland chicken (55.69%). Moreover, the base next to methylcytosine of mCHG in Tibetan chicken had a preference for T, which was different from that in lowland chicken. In Tibetan chicken, the methylation levels in the promoter were relatively low, while the gene body maintained hypomethylated. DNA methylation levels in upstream regions of the transcription start site (TSS) of geneshad a negative relationship with the gene expression level, and the DNA methylation of gene-body were also negatively related to gene expression. Conclusions: We firstly generated the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in Tibetan chicken, and our results will be helpful for future epigenetic studies in adaptations to high-altitude conditions and provide a new idea for the prevention and treatment of mountain sickness and other hypoxia-related diseases to human. Keywords: Epigenetics, DNA methylation, MethylC-Seq, highland chicken, adaptation, extreme environment.   Ã‚   Background DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic modification that plays a vital role in genomic imprinting [1], transcriptional repression [2], and chromatin activation [3]. In recent years, we have gained knowledge on the association of DNA methylation with cellular differentiation, development, and disease, however, little information is available concerning the DNA methylation modifications under long-term extreme environment. Environmental aspects influence through both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms [4, 5]. Several studies have tried to establish the relationship between environmental factors and DNA methylation in humans. It was reported that reduced global DNA methylation in whole blood was related to exposure to ambient air pollution at the home addresses of non adults [6]. In malignant cells, airborne benzene induce a significant decrease in the methylation of LINE-1 and AluI, and increasing airborne benzene levels can cause hypermethylation in p15 and hypomethylation in MAGE-1 [7]. The average level of methylation in p16 was increased in patients with benzene poisoning compared with control group, while no alternation was observed in the p15 methylation [8]. Korea et al. revealed that most organochlorine (OC) pesticides were inversely and significantly related to the methylation of Alu [9]. In the prenatal pregnant women, lead exposure was inversely related to genomic DNA methylation in white blo od cells [10]. Moreover, base on the epigenetic inheritance mechanisms, adaptive traits that result from the environment can be transferred to the next generation. For instance, environment containing endocrine-disrupting chemicals can affect the germ line and promote disease across offspring via DNA methylation [11]. Above researchs shows that environmental conditions could induce DNA methylation alternation to to influence disease, prompting us to explore whether DNA methylation is associated with the unique adaptations of farm animals to hypoxia and high-dose ultraviolet radiation in high-altitude environments. The Tibetan chicken which lives in high-altitude environment has smaller body, lower heart rate, higher spleen rate and erythrocyte volum than low-altitude chicken. Previous research showed that humans relocating to high-altitudes might undergo acute mountain sickness, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and high-altitude cerebral edema [12]. Whereas, the Tibetan chicken is greatly adapted to the low-oxygen and high-altitude environment and displays good performance in terms of survival and has high reproduction [13]. Therefore, investigation the genome-wide DNA methylation of Tibetan chicken, understanding the effects of DNA methylation on the plateau adaptability, may provide a new idea for the prevention and treatment of mountain sickness and other hypoxia-related diseases to human. In this study, we perform whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) on Tibetan chicken blood to analyze their global DNA methylation patterns. The DNA methylome distribution in the Tibetan chicken genome was shown for the first time. Our results will provided an important resource for exploring low-oxygen adaptation mechanism in high-altitude district. Methods Animals In this study, one Tibetan chicken was obtained from Xiangcheng County in the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture with the living place about 3500 meters above sea level. Blood samples were collected and stored at -20  °C for bisulfite sequencing. Total genomic DNA was collected from the blood with the use of a TIANamp Genomic DNA Kit (Tiangen, Beijing, China). All experiments in this study were performed in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations, and were approved by the Science and Technology Department of Sichuan Province. MethylC-Seq library construction and sequencing DNA was fragmented by sonication with a Sonicator (Sonics Materials) to a mean size of approxi ­mately 250 bp, followed by blunt ending, 3à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ²-end addition of dA, and adapter ligation, in which Illumina methylated adapters were used according to the manufacturers instructions (Illumina). The bisulfite conversion of Tibetan chicken DNA was carried out using ZYMO EZ DNA Methylation-Gold kit (Zymo Research, Irvine, CA, USA) and ampli ­fied via PCR with 12 cycles. Ultra-high-throughput pair-end sequencing was performed by the Illumina Genetic Analyzer (GA2) on the basis of manufacturer instructions. Raw GA sequencing data were processed using Illumina base-calling pipeline (SolexaPipeline-1.0). Data Filtering Data filtering was performed via the elimination of the adaptor sequences, contamination and low-quality reads from raw reads. Low-quality reads consist of three types including: 1) Contain adaptor sequence; 2) N base number over 10%; 3) The number of base whose quality less than 20 over 10% was trimmed, and the read which accord with one of them will be removed. Only cleaned data were used for the downstream analyses. Reads Alignment On the forward read of each read pair, observed cytosines were replaced with replaced with adenines, and the observed guanines were replaced with adenines on the reverse read of each read pair. The alignment form reads were then mapped to the alignment form gallus_gallus reference genome by SOAP aligner[14]. Each hit with a single placement with a minimum number of mismatches and and a clear operation chain was defined as unambiguous alignment (uniquely mapped reads) and was used for ascertainment of methyl-cytosine. The copy numbers of the local region was estimateed by calculating the the uniquely mapped reads. Estimating methylation levels Methylation level was determined by dividing the number of reads covering each mC by the total reads covering that cytosine, which was also equal the mC/C ratio at each reference cytosine. The function is showed as following: Methylation level = 100 * GO enrichment Analysis GO annotations of Tibetan chicken genes were downloaded from the Ensembl ( GO comparative analyses between inter ­ested genes groups were performed using BGI WEGO ( KEGG Pathway Analysis Different genes usually interact with each other to exercise their biological functions. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomesà ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã‹â€ KEGGà ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã¢â‚¬ °is the main public pathway database. Super geometry analyses were conducted to find the KEGG pathways enriched in genes differentially methylated compared to the whole genome. The calculation formula is the same as that in GO function analyses, N represents number of genes with pathway annotation; For the number, n is the number of differentially expressed genes corresponding N, M represents number of all genes which have a particular pathway annotation; m represents numbers of differentially expressed genes which have a particular pathway annotation. Pathway mapped Q value à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 0.05 defined as the pathway of significant enrichment. Through significant enrichment of the pathway, we can determine the most main in biochemical pathways and signal transduction pathways. Results       Global mapping of DNA methylation In the present study, blood samples from a Tibetan chicken were used to generate three libraries for genome-wide methylation sequencing. All libraries showed nearly complete bisulfite conversion (99.7%). A total of 41.3 Gb raw data were obtained from three blood samples. After data filtering, 151,345,614, 165,745,108 and 141,554,972 clean reads were generated for the three libraries, respectively. Of the total reads, 75.6% were mapped to the reference genome, with 28 X Whole-genome average coverage depth, which could reveal the data quantity of clean data because of the characteristics of bisulfite sequencing (Table 1 and 2). Cytosine patterns have 3 major types (CG, CHG and CHH, H represents non-G base, hereinafter inclusive) according to the sequence context. Therefore, we analyzed the relationships between effective sequencing depth and genome coverage for different cytosine patterns (Figure S1, S2). Figure S1 reveals that there is a negative correlation between the effective sequencing depth and the percentage of cytosine in genome. The Figure S2 shows that the distribution of genome coverage varies with sequencing depth accord with the Poisson distribution, and the depth of the distribution`s apex is near to the genome average sequencing depth. In additon, we performed effective coverage analysis base on three different levels: chromosome, gene region and genomic feature. The effective coverage of all cytosine in each chromosome ranges from 82.77% to 97.86%, except for 24.96% in chr17 , while the CpG effective coverage of each chromosome ranges from 86.74% to 97.5%, except for 23.58% in chr17 (Table S1). Moreover,coverage of all cytosine in CDS and intron region was 95.94% and 93.66%, respectivelyà ¯Ã‚ ¼Ã…’ and CG coverage in CDS and intron region was 96.04% and 93.45%, respectively (Table S2). DNA methylation patterns In Tibetan chicken, the methylation level of all genomic C sites was more than 3.9%. Patterns of Cytosine methylation in Tibetan chicken were found to have three major types (mCG, mCHG and mCHH) according to the sequence context. We discovered overall genome-wide levels of 51.22% CG, 0.4% CHG, and 0.45% CHH methylation in the Tibetan chicken (Table 3). In whole genome, the CG methylation occupied over 96% of cytosine methylation, which is the primary cytosine methylation pattern. However, the rate of mCHH was only 3% and the rate of mCHG was 1%(Fig. 1A). Methylation status of CG, CHG and CHH differ between species, even varies with different conditions concerning time, space and physiology within a single organism. Figure 1b showed that percentage of the methylation level of methyl-cytosine varies with methylation level. In the tibet chicken blood, more than 75 % of mCG sites were 60-100 % methylated (Fig. 1b). In addition, chromosome1 was used as an instance to illuminate the methyl-cytosine density distribution in chromosome, and the methyl-cytosine density showed large variations throughout the chromosome 1, which was similar to other chromosomes (Fig. 1c) Proximal Sequence Features Analysis To identify whether the particular local sequences were markedly enriched as the DNA methylome of Arabidopsis, we analyzed the sequence adjacent to sites of CG and non-CG methylation. The methylation ratios of all potential 9-mer sequences were calculated, and the methylated cytosine was located at the fourth position in these sequences (permitting an analysis of three bases upstream of CHG, and CHH methylation). As shown in figure 2, hardly a sequence preference was found in the CG-flanking regions of the hole genome or in the mCG-flanking regions. Moreover, the highest frequency base that next to the CHG cytosine in genome was A, followed by T and C, while the base following the mCHG methylcytosine has a preference for T, followed by A and C. In CHH context, the fifth position that proximal to the sites of cytosine has a preference for C, and the sixth position prefer to T, which is similar to the mCHH(Fig. 2). DNA methylation levels of different functional regions Different genomic features are associated with distinct regulation functions. To study the DNA methylation profile in different genomic features, the heat map was used to present the distribution of methylation level in the CDS, downstream, Genome, intron and upstream (fig. 3). The comparative analysis of mean DNA methylation levels revealed that different gennome regions showed distinguishing DNA methylation levels. Additionally, we analyzed DNA methylation patterns across the transcriptional units at whole genome level. In Tibet chicken, most of the promoter regions have an association with CpG islands and are hypomethylated, which showed a lower CG methylation level than the gene-body and the gene downstream. Moreover, methylation of CG declined sharply before the TSS and increased markedly towards the gene body regions and stayed at a plateau until the 3 end of the gene body, and two obvious peaks were present in the regions of the internol exon and the last exon (Fig. 3). The me thylation of CHG had the same varying tendency with the methylation of CG, but was characterised by mitigatory changes compared to the rapid changes of CG methylation. Furthermore, the methylation peaks of both CG and CHG were presented in the internal and last exons in which the methylation lows of CHH appeared. DNA methylation levels ofpromoter and genebody Methylation of the promoter suppresses gene expression, but the functional role of gene-body DNA methylation in highly expressed genes has yet to be clarified. To better characterise the methylation of promoter and gene-body, a comprehensive analysis of methylated genes and unmethylated genes in gene-body and upstream2k was performed. In total, 14,018 genes were methylated in both promoter and gene-body, while 505 genes were exclusively methylated in promoter and 409 genes were exclusively methylated in gene-body, and 231 genes unmethylated in both promoter and gene-body (fig. 4A). Gene ontology analysis of methylated and unmethylated genes revealed the top-ranked enriched GO terms were related to the cellular process, metabolic process, and response to stimulus in the biological process (BP) category. The cellular component (CC) category mainly comprised genes involved in cell, cell part, and organelle. Within the molecular function (MF) category, binding, catalytic activity, and tr ansporter activity were highly represented (fig. 4B and 3S). In addition, KEGG analysis showed that genebody methylation genes were clustered in the metabolic pathways, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, and calcium signaling pathway, while the genebody unmethylation genes were clustered in metabolic pathways, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, and endocytosis. Moreover, promoter methylation genes were most involved in ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, oocyte meiosis, and melanoma, while , promoter unmethylation genes were most involved in N-Glycan biosynthesis, Glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-anchor biosynthesis, and Fat digestion and absorption (fig. 5). DNA methylation and gene expression level DNA methylation of promoter generally suppress gene transcription via inducing a compact chromatin structure. We obtained the gene expression profiles of Tibetan chicken from the GEO database. Based on expression levels, all genes were divided into ten groups, from the lowest 10% and to the highest 10%. Furthermore, the genomic regions that 2 kb upstream of the TSS were defined as the proximal promoter, and used the mean methylation as the methylation level of each group. The correlation analysis showed that gene expression level was negatively related to the mean DNA methylation level of the promoter regions (fig. 6A; r=-0.93, pshowed little difference in these ten groups with different expression level (fig. 6B; r=-0.83, p Discussion Genomics technologies have been extensively used to investigate the adaptations of humans, animals and plants to extreme conditions [15, 16]. However, the relationships between the adaptions and the epigenetic modifications that result from extreme environmental exposures remains to be further elucidated. To date, the methylation pattern of Tibetan chicken remains unknown. To improve our understanding of the association between epigenetic modifications andadaptations to hypoxia and high-dose ultraviolet radiation in high-altitude environments, we analyzed whole-genome single-base resolution DNA methylomes by WGBS to provide the genomewide DNA methylation patterns in Tibetan chicken blood and interrogate the potential role of DNA methylation in adaptations to high-altitude environments. Genome-wide DNA methylations of lowland chickens have been researched using MeDIP-seq [17, 18], MBD-Seq [19], and Methyl-MAPS [20], which measure methylation base on immunoprecipitation and restriction enzyme digestion. Compared to WGBS, these technologies generate lower resolution and coverage, and fail to obtain methylation level for CHG and CHH. For example, Only 32 % of CpG coverage was obtained from the study of lowland chicken using Methyl-MAPS [20]. In the other lowland chicken study, the CpG coverage ranges from 83.72 to 91.57 % using MethylC-seq [21]. In the current study, the CpG effective coverage of each chromosome ranges from 86.74% to 97.5%, except for 23.58% CpG coverage of chr17 in Tibet chicken. In lowland chicken, more than 55.69% of cytosines in CG contexts were methylated which is much higher than those in Tibet chicken (51.22%), while the percentage of mCHG and mCHH in Tibet chicken was higher than those in lowland chicken. In addition, 96.24 %, 0.86 % and 2.89 % of all methylcytosines were present in the CG CHG and CHH context, respectively, while the CG methylation in Tibet chicken occupied only 96% of cytosine methylation. Moreover, the base next to methylcytosine of mCHG in lowland chicken had a preference for A, while that in highland chicken prefer to T. All these indicated that the highland environments decrease the global CG methylation levels of chicken, and change the sequence context preferences for methylation, suggesting that the methylation involve in the adaptations of chicken to high-altitude environments. In Tibetan chicken genome, the DNA methylation level rapidly down before the TSS and markedly increased towards the gene body regions and stayed at a plateau until the 3 end of the gene body. These methylation features discovered in this study consistently match with those previously reported in bovine placentas [22]. Similar to the lowland chickengenome, the Tibetan chicken genome has two CG methylation peaks in the internal and last exons, but the difference is that the lowland chicken genome showed a mitigatory methylation level in the genome regions before the TSS [21], suggesting that the long-term hypoxia and UV radiation under high-altitude conditions cause methylation alternation. The promoter plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene transcription and most of the promoter regions are hypomethylated [23], while the gene-body DNA methylation is associated with chromatin structure and elongation efficiency, and prevents spurious transcription initiation [24, 25]. In present study, we found the promoter is hypomethylated, whereas the methylation level in gene-body is relatively high, a finding that is similar to those from previously reported in human [26] and lowland chicken [17]. Hypermethylation of the promoters represses gene transcription [27], and the reduction of methylation at the promoters causes gene overexpression [28]. In human embryonic stem cells, Laurent et al. reported that 20% of the most highly expressed genes displayed the lowest methylation levels in promoter. We analyse the relationship between the methylation and the expression inTibetan chicken, using the method reported in previous studies [17]. Similar to reports in humans [17, 29, 3 0] and lowland chicken [5], DNA methylation level in 2 kb upstream of genes is negatively related to the gene expression level in Tibetan chicken, this was further evidence that DNA methylation at the promoters is involved in gene silencing. Methylation in gene-body is more prevalent than in promoter, but the role of gene-body methylation in gene regulation remains unclear. Previous researchs showed that gene-body methylation has an intricate correlation with expression level. Most researchers believed that the methylation of gene-body is positively correlated with gene expression [26, 29, 31, 32], although several researchers have indicated that intragenic methylation might inhibit gene transcription [24]. However, the correlation between gene-body methylation and expression levels in bovine placentas is non-monotonic and the moderately expressed genes show the highest methylation in gene-body [22]. Our data demonstrated that methylation in the gene-body of Tibetan chicken may decrease gene expression. However, methylation in gene-body is just one of the thousands of factors that affect gene transcription. Therefore, further studies centering on the DNA methylation of certain regions that display distinct effect in gene regulation are needed to clarify the complicated epigenetic mechanism underlying high-altitude environments and its relationships with adaptations to hypoxia and high-dose ultraviolet radiation in high-altitude environments. In summary, the present study provides the first comprehensive analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the blood of highland chicken, and our results can be used for future studies on epigenetic gene regulation in highland chicken. This study contributes to the knowledge on epigenetics in highland animals. References 1. Tirado-Magallanes, R., et al., Whole genome DNA methylation: beyond genes silencing. Oncotarget, 2017. 8(3): p. 5629-5637. 2. Li, S., et al., Genome-wide analysis reveals that exon methylation facilitates its selective usage in the human transcriptome. Brief Bioinform, 2017. 3. Keown, C.L., et al., Allele-specific non-CG DNA methylation marks domains of active chromatin in female mouse brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2017. 4. Daxinger, L. and E. Whitelaw, Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: more questions than answers. Genome Res, 2010. 20(12): p. 1623-8. 5. Chen, Z.J., Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms for gene expression and phenotypic variation in plant polyploids. Annu Rev Plant Biol, 2007. 58: p. 377-406. 6. De Prins, S., et al., Influence of ambient air pollution on global DNA methylation in healthy adults: a seasonal follow-up. Environ Int, 2013. 59: p. 418-24. 7. Bollati, V., et al., Changes in DNA methylation patterns in subjects exposed to low-dose benzene. Cancer Res, 2007. 67(3): p. 876-80. 8. Xing, C., et al., Methylation and expression analysis of tumor suppressor genes p15 and p16 in benzene poisoning. Chem Biol Interact, 2010. 184(1-2): p. 306-9. 9. Kim, K.Y., et al., Association of low-dose exposure to persistent organic pollutants with global DNA hypomethylation in healthy Koreans. Environ Health Perspect, 2010. 118(3): p. 370-4. 10. Pilsner, J.R., et al., Influence of prenatal lead exposure on genomic methylation of cord blood DNA. Environ Health Perspect, 2009. 117(9): p. 1466-71. 11. Crews, D., et al., Transgenerational epigenetic imprints on mate preference. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2007. 104(14): p. 5942-6. 12. Srivastava, S., et al., Association of polymorphisms in angiotensin and aldosterone synthase genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with high-altitude pulmonary edema. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst, 2012. 13(1): p. 155-60. 13. Li, M. and C. Zhao, Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue. Sci China C Life Sci, 2009. 52(3): p. 284-95. 14. Li, R., et al., SOAP2: an improved ultrafast tool for short read alignment. Bioinformatics, 2009. 25(15): p. 1966-7. 15. Turner, T.L., et al., Population resequencing reveals local adaptation of Arabidopsis lyrata to serpentine soils. Nat Genet, 2010. 42(3): p. 260-3. 16. Liu, S., et al., Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears. Cell, 2014. 157(4): p. 785-94. 17. Li, Q., et al., Genome-wide mapping of DNA methylation in chicken. PLoS One, 2011. 6(5): p. e19428. 18. Hu, Y., et al., Comparison of the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles between fast-growing and slow-growing broilers. PLoS One, 2013. 8(2): p. e56411. 19. Carrillo, J.A., et al., Methylome Analysis in Chickens Immunized with Infectious Laryngotracheitis Vaccine. PLoS One, 2015. 10(6): p. e0100476. 20. Tian, F., et al., DNMT gene expression and methylome in Mareks disease resistant and susceptible chickens prior to and following infection by MDV. Epigenetics, 2013. 8(4): p. 431-44.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Harsh Perspectives of Youth in Garland’s The Beach :: Garland The Beach Essays

Harsh Perspectives of Youth in Garland’s The Beach  Ã‚  Ã‚   As his narrator, Garland offers us Richard, a less than balanced individual, in possession of a tenuous grip upon reality. He is arrogant and reckless, often believing himself to have nothing left to learn ("Fucking New Guy? ... New to what?" p87) and convinced of his own immortality ("Yea, though I walk through the valley of death I will fear no evil, for I am the evilest motherfucker in the valley" p87) The beach is supposed to represent the highest level of escape attainable, but can only be from the outset a disappointment, because it is already built up in his mind into something unobtainable; "It's silly really. I think I was expecting an . . . ideology or something. A purpose." p96 Richard being the narrative voice, one can logically infer that it is his perspective which is intended by Garland to be representative of the youth culture depicted. My first impression is that the very fact that Richard commits his story to text is indicative of a desperate need for recognition, and his style of narration suggests that its writing is not likely to be meant as a catharsis. As a character, he is shallow and self-glorifying beyond the point to which readers might sympathise with his reckless actions: p163 "Collecting ... experiences was my primary goal when I first started travelling. I went about it in the same way as a stamp-collector goes about collecting stamps ... Then I had to graduate to the more obscure stuff. Being in a riot was something I pursued with a truly obsessive zeal, along with being tear-gassed and hearing gunshots fired in anger." The cultural phenomenon of travelling, as distinct from tourism, is one reserved for domination almost exclusively by youth. In Richard's mind, as in others, it becomes the acquisition of experiences with only slight moral differentiation between them, merely a reinforcement in the mind of the collector of their own broadening life perspective; a form of validation which, whilst owing nothing to established mainstream cultural value systems, replaces these with a generation-created classification hierarchy which is just as strict. Established value systems provide the catalyst for tensions within the group, which emerge at the earliest stages immediately upon Richard's arrival: "There's only five people with Walkmans in the camp, and I've refused all of them batteries in the past.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Value Analysis

Value Analysis or Value Engineering 1. Explain, how does value chain approach helps an organisation to assess its competitive advantage Answer: Most of the firms define value chain as mission of creating product or services. For these firms, the products or services generated are more important than any single step within their value chain. These firms use the value chain approach to better understand and identify which segment, distribution channel, price point, product differentiation, selling proposition and value chain configuration will yield them the greatest competitive advantage.The way the value chain approach helps these firms to assess competitive advantage includes the use of following steps of analysis : (i)Internal cost analysis — to determine the sources of profitability and the relative cost position if internal value creating processes. (ii)Internal differentiation analysis – to understand the sources of differentiation (including the cost) within inter nal value creating processes, and iii)Vertical linkage analysis – to understand the relationships and associated costs among external suppliers and customer in order to maximize the value delivered to customers and to minimise cost. These type of analysis are not mutually exclusive. In fact, firm begin by focussing on their internal operations and gradually widening their focus to consider their competitive position within their industry. The value chain approach used for assessing competitive advantage is an integral part of the strategic planning process. 2. Write a short notes on value analysisAnswer Value analysis (also known as value engineering) is a systematic interdisciplinary examination of factors affecting the cost of a product or service in order to devise means of achieving the specified purpose at the required standard of quality and reliability at the target cost. The aim of value engineering is to achieve the assigned target cost by (i) identifying improved pr oduct designs that reduce the product’s cost without sacrificing functionality and/or (ii) eliminating unnecessary functions that increase the product’s costs and for which customers are not prepared to pay extra for.Value analysis or value engineering is one of the most widely used cost reduction techniques. It can be defined as a technique that yields value improvement. It investigates into the economic attributes of value. It attempts to reduce cost through a. design change, b. modification of material specification, c. change in the source of supply and so on. It emphasises on finding new ways of getting equal or better performance from a product at a lesser cost without affecting its quality, function, utility and reliability.For example, the function of a fastener is to join two or more parts. Value analysis examines the value of this function in terms of alternative methods such as welding, taping stapling, etc. in view of the stress and vibrations involved in a specific application. In value analysis each and every product or component of a product is subjected to a critical examination so as to ascertain its utility in the product, its cost, cost benefit ratio, and better substitute etc. When the benefits are lower than the cost, advantage may be gained by giving up the activity concerned or replacing if for betterment.The best product is one that will perform satisfactorily at the lowest cost. The various steps involved in value analysis are : 1. identification of the problem; 2. collecting information about function, design, material, labour overhead costs, etc. , of the product and finding out the availability of the competitive products in the market; and 3. exploring and evaluating alternatives and developing them. In other words value analysis brings out clearly the areas where the cost of a product can be reduced by pointing out : 1. Unnecessary items, components in a product to be removed. . Possibility of substitution with reduc ed cost without affecting its quality. 3. Possibility of overall simplification in design manufacture etc. of a product. 3Value Engineering is more effective than any other cost reduction technique like Work Study, Automation etc. — Discuss this statement in the Indian context. Answer. Value engineering or value analysis is one of the most widely used cost reduction technique in the purchasing and production areas. It aims at reducing cost through change, modification of material specification, change in the source of supply of material and so on.It emphasis’s on finding new ways of getting equal or superior performance from a product at a minimum cost without affecting its quality, function and reliability. It is the process of subjecting each and every component of a product to a critical examination so as to ascertain : (i) Its utility in the product; (ii) Its cost; (iii) Whether is cost commensurate with its utility ; (iv) Whether it can be replaced by a cheaper co mponents ; (v) Whether it can be does away with ; (vi) What the competitors are using in place of it ; and (vii) Whether anybody is buying it at cheaper price.Utility means usefulness; this can be easily and definitely measured when the concerned component or the service can be obtained form outside — the price measures it usefulness. In some cases where an outside market does not exist, utility would be measured only subjectively. Still one would have a fair idea of whether the benefit obtained, say in terms of better appearance, is worth the costs incurred. Usually it would be profitable tom tap outside sources if the price is lower than the cost.But this decision needs to be made with great care as the question of fixed and sunk costs is very important. Value engineering bring clearly the areas where the cost of product can be decreased by pointing out: (i) Unnecessary items/components in a which might have had once some utility but now are redundant and, therefore, dispen sable ; (ii) the possibilities of component — substitution with reduced cost without affecting the quality of the product; and (iii) the possibilities of overall simplification in design / manufacture etc. f a product. The relationship between value engineering and cost reduction a. Value engineering is done with a view to reduce the cost and cost reduction looks upon value engineering as one of its prime tools. b. Cost-reduction has always followed a critical examination of the benefit incurred. Value engineering is a careful and as far possible, quantities appraisal of the benefit derived at each stage of work.Where the benefits are lower than the cost, advantage may be gained by giving up the activity concerned or replacing it by something else. c. Work study automation etc, do reduce cost but in most cases, they save only labour cost by improving efficiency, etc. On the other hand, value engineering relates the worth of the product, its value to the function it is intende d to perform and makes a sizeable in the cost of the materials by design changes, substitution etc.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Mexican National Anthem

Mexican National Anthem One of the most impressive choral performances Ive heard was when I was part of a crowd of hundreds of thousands one Sept. 15, the eve of Mexicos Independence Day, on Mexico Citys main plaza, known as the ZÃ ³calo. Late in the night, the crowd sang this song, the Mexican National Anthem, known officially as el Himno Nacional Mexicano. The anthem was written in 1853 by poet Francisco Gonzlez Bocanegra, although it didnt become official until nearly a century later. It was originally written with 10 verses and a chorus, although only four verses are typically sung. The anthem is usually sung starting with a chorus followed by the four stanzas, with the chorus sung between each stanza and at the end. Estribillo: Mexicanos, al grito de guerraEl acero aprestad y el bridn,Y retiemble en sus centros la tierraAl sonoro rugir del can. Chorus: Mexicans, when the war cry is heard,Have sword and bridle ready.Let the earths foundations trembleAt the loud cannons roar. Estrofa 1: Cia oh Patria! tus sienes de olivaDe la paz el arcngel divino,Que en el cielo tu eterno destino,Por el dedo de Dios se escribi;Mas si osare un extrao enemigo,Profanar con su planta tu suelo,Piensa oh Patria querida! que el cieloUn soldado en cada hijo te dio. Stanza 1: May the divine archangel crown your brow,Oh fatherland, with an olive branch of peace,For your eternal destiny has been writtenIn heaven by the finger of God.But should a foreign enemyDare to profane your soil with his tread,Know, beloved fatherland, that heaven gave youA soldier in each of your sons. Estrofa 2: Guerra, guerra sin tregua al que intenteDe la patria manchar los blasones!Guerra, guerra! Los patrios pendonesEn las olas de sangre empapad.Guerra, guerra! En el monte, en el valleLos caones horrsonos truenenY los ecos sonoros resuenenCon las voces de Unin! Libertad! Stanza 2: War, war without truce against who would attemptto blemish the honor of the fatherland!War, war! The patriotic bannerssaturate in waves of blood.War, war! On the mount, in the valeThe terrifying cannon thunderand the echoes nobly resoundto the cries of union! liberty! Estrofa 3: Antes, patria,que inermes tus hijosBajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen,Tus campias con sangre se rieguen,Sobre sangre se estampe su pie.Y tus templos, palacios y torresSe derrumben con hrrido estruendo,Y sus ruinas existan diciendo:De mil hroes la patria aqu fue. Stanza 2: Fatherland, before your children become unarmedBeneath the yoke their necks in sway,May your countryside be watered with blood,On blood their feet trample.And may your temples, palaces and towerscrumble in horrid crash,and their ruins exist saying:The fatherland was made of one thousand heroes here. Estrofa 4: Patria! Patria! tus hijos te juranExhalar en tus aras su aliento,Si el clarn con su blico acento,Los convoca a lidiar con valor:Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva!Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria!Un laurel para ti de victoria!Un sepulcro para ellos de honor! Stanza 4: Fatherland, oh fatherland, your sons vowTo give their last breath on your altars,If the trumpet with its warlike soundCalls them to valiant battle.For you, the olive garlands,For them, a glorious memory.For you, the victory laurels,For them, an honored tomb.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

International Business in United Arab Emirates

International Business in United Arab Emirates Country Analysis The United Arab Emirates is a federal republic consisting of seven states referred to as emirates. Geographically, the United Arab Emirates is located on the south eastern part of the greater Arabian Peninsula which is itself found in the South Western part of the Asian continent (the gulf of Persia).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on International Business in United Arab Emirates specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More UAE neighbors the Islamic republic of Oman and Saudi Arabia. The seven emirates making up the entire state are Dubai, Ajman, Umm al-Quwain, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Fujairah and Ras al Khaimah. The largest of the emirate cities is Dubai; the second largest city Abu Dhabi, however is the one that doubles up as the capital of the UAE because it is the nerve centre of all industrial, political as well as cultural activities. Political System The constitution that was enacted in the year 1971 provides the basis by which the political affairs of the UAE are run. This document contains a number of inter twinned bodies of government.. The form of politics in practice can be said to be a compromise of the various aspects seen in a federal system, a monarchy and a presidential system. This is because all the seven emirates are absolute monarchies and partially independent from the central federal government, the president however is the head of state and the prime minister the head of government with authority over the country’s foreign policy, Emirates security and national defense. The central government is made up of the traditional arms of government that is, the executive arm consisting of the president his deputy and the prime minister with the entire cabinet; the legislative arm that makes laws as well as the judicial arm that interprets the laws. The federal supreme council, which is made up of emirs (representatives) from each of the seven emirates is tasked with the responsibility of electing the president and the entire cabinet including judges of the Supreme Court. The representative (emir) elected from Abu Dhabi the state capital, automatically holds the position of president whereas the emir elected from Dubai the largest city becomes the official premier. The degree of influence of all the emirates conclusively can be seen in the particular position they hold within the federal government and in as much as each of them is fairly autonomous from the rest, they are each allocated a proportion of revenue from the national budget.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Economy Being a member of the United Nations Organization (UN), World Trade Organization WTO), the Arab League and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); The United Arab Emirates has the seventh largest reserves of petroleum globally. Its econo my is arguably the most comprehensively developed in the entire Middle East. According to latest rankings provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), UAE has an impressive Gross Domestic Product (per capita) with its nominal GDP per capita standing at $ 46, 584. Its Human Development index is 35th internationally and is part of the reason as to why it has been classified as a high income economy (Ball et al 2008, p 150) The CIA’s world fact book places the country’s per capita GDP at number 3 in the Middle East coming next to Qatar and Kuwait; and number 14 universally. Petroleum products export (oil and natural gas) are a significant contributor to its national GDP. Other factors that have however made the economy to boom are its expansive manufacturing industry, an established tourism and service sector and most of all, its building and construction prowess in real estate business. Infrastructure The development in the country’s infrastructure has witne ssed a tremendous revolution with the setting up of magnificent structures the world has ever known. The Burj Khalifa (standing at 0.8Km) is now the tallest building on earth and it is found in the UAE, the Dubai World Central International Airport shall also become the most expensive airport ever constructed in the universe when its construction finally concludes. Other magnificent real estate properties in the country include the Palm Island which is a man made island (the largest ever artificial island) in the world, the artificial archipelago and the world’s largest shopping mall (The Dubai Mall). Such lucrative infrastructure makes the country appealing for investments in real estate. As part of its uniform economic foreign policy, local influence has to be felt in all businesses enterprises in the UAE and this explains the existence of a common standard requiring that all businesses except for the ones classified in the free trade zones in the country have no less than 51% shareholding being local. This is a clear strategy that is aimed at ensuring the locals (Emiratis) are in the lead towards economic empowerment (Balasubramanyam 1985, p. 159 ). Cultural Practices UAE has largely become multi cultural in recent years. Its cultural mix has however been gradually domineered and centered around the Islamic faith. In this cosmopolitan set up, Muslim culture is largely seen in the way the residents have to assemble everyday five times to pray from the mosques that are visible in the entire country. The country’s music, attire, cuisine and architecture are purely Arabic with the Eid al Fitr and Ramadan being the common Islamic holidays.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on International Business in United Arab Emirates specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The non interference stance and the liberalism seen in the United Arab Emirates has contributed to economic progress, it is common to see Hindu temples as well as churches constructed alongside mosques to demonstrate the level of religious tolerance in this country. This has further increased the number of visits by tourists and thus enhanced the hotel industry. Investment in Real Estate An investment in Hotel Real Estate would be the most strategic in the United Arab Emirates, this is because the country’s infrastructure is extra-ordinarily established. The infrastructural development alone is responsible for close to thirty seven percent of all project value constructions. The seven Emirates have simultaneously realized that there is a future in the real estate sector with such big investments in the entertainment, leisure and generally tourism. The central government therefore provides incentives to both local and international commercial developers to bring in their investments in this sector. The current president of the UAE Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed has moved in to entice development in real estate in especially the northern emirates by apportioning an amount of 16 Billion Dirham (about 4 Billion Dollars) for the expansion of infrastructure in these regions. This money is expected to among other things open up the road network and establish new housing schemes both residential and commercial premises in these areas considered to be having a deficit of such facilities. The federal (local) governments have also been adequately funded and provided with sufficient logistical inputs to help them provide the necessary public utilities that will attract real estate investment in their respective regions. Electricity and water has been provided as part of the infrastructure by the local Emirates to attract investments in these regions. The United Arab Emirates being basically a desert country utilizes 100% thermal energy as opposed to hydro electricity which is unheard of and generally unreliable depending on surface run off. Plans have also been instituted by the central government to augment this energy source with nuclear sources seen as most efficient and highly effective. Communication has also been greatly enhanced in not only the major emirates, but also other upcoming centers to make the areas attractive to invest. Real estate investment in the UAE has therefore been increasingly enhanced by the foregoing factors and shows tremendous ability to grow and multiply its market value. The long run results are not only desirable but also possess an enormous avenue for resale due to the appreciation in the value of land and buildings occasioned by adequate infrastructure.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More External investors in real estate in the UAE are able to obtain financing from the developed network of banks in the country. Real estate departments are also available in the various emirates. Land reclamation is key because the entire country is in the Arabian Desert and therefore specific strategies must be put up to reclaim desert land and make it attractive for settlement and commercialization. This has however been made easier by the federal electricity and water authorities that are tasked with ensuring that these resources are readily available using the cheapest means possible. Entry Strategy Since every country in the world is currently striving to be a regional force and play an important role in international business activities, particular legislations have to be put in place in order to control and accurately measure the degree of foreign direct investments as well as local investments. The established rules regarding the transfer of foreign capital in the United Arab Emirates is meant to enhance the ease of capital flight and ensure a much more free flow of ideas and money while at the same time ensuring the protection of the property owned by foreign investors. Investors thus feel safer and secure under this frame work as it prescribes a number of legally accepted forms of property ownership and outlines the various courses of action that may be available in law for an aggrieved investor. The laws that deal with a number of business activities including the formation and ownership of business organizations may vary slightly from one Emirate to another because of the initial point mentioned about their autonomy. Every individual Emirate has its own established standard of creating wealth and revenues. The central government has however tried to formulate a blanket law that shall act as a common standard. In the establishment of this law, a compromise position has been struck between the sovereignty and autonomy of the individual Emirates and the demands of progress and economic well being advanced by the central government. In the creation of this foreign investments law however, it was a unanimous agreement by all the federal Emirates that the welfare and economic well being of each and every individual Emirati is the bottom line. While they all realized the central need to make the UAE a one stop shop and a global reference point for any form of international investment, they upheld the significance of welfare and the progress of the nation. UAE has an investment legislation that makes it mandatory for any form of direct foreign investment in the country to be having a 50 plus 1 majority stake under the control of the indigenous Emiratis (David 1992, p 175.However in the recent past UAE has launched a new system to attract foreign investors in the emirates, by introducing free zones that offer incentives to foreign investors such as exemptions from import and export tax corporate tax and income tax among others. The zone s comprise of various businesses including; manufacturing, banking, assets and estates management, logistics, information and technology etc. They also have all the amenities, infrastructure communication systems and all other essential facilities for operation. Jebel Ali Free Trade Zone is one of them and is involved in the production and selling of manufactured goods, domestically and for the international market there are over 950 different activities in the zone. The zones regulations allow companies to have full ownership of the assets for the entity. Nasouh, (2009) says â€Å"Other major benefits are: exemption from the many normal requirements for foreign investors such as: a company must have local ownership, pay taxes and duties, and restricted transfer of capital, profits and salaries†. Companies do not require local sponsorships to create other branches of their business. The zones authorities keep a register for all companies in existence, register new businesses and set the rules and regulations for them. From the above information about Dubai’s investment policies, the high control strategy would be the best to way of entry. The strategy enables companies to have maximum control hence creating a physical presence in the foreign market. A major feature of the strategy is the foreign direct investment option which entails direct ownership and control of assets. Direct investment is the most advanced, complicated system which also has a high risk. It is best suited for well developed economies like that of the emirates, and all types of business can use the strategy including the service industry. The major benefits of using the system are: there is rapid growth of the markets, reduced costs, increase sales and revenues and it also protects both the domestic and foreign markets. The system also has two different ownership structures which are the; wholly owned direct investment and in this structure the company owns its foreign assets and equity fully, the second is the equity joint ventures in which two companies form a new entity and share control of the business. The best structure for an investor operating in the free zones is the wholly owned direct investment because it is allowed and will yield more benefits. Another feature of the system is the vertical integration which comprises of the activities an entity chooses to engage in; any of the three stages which are, production, selling or distribution of products can be fully applicable in the zones depending on a company’s objective. Production Marketing Strategies As earlier mentioned in this discussion, the religion and culture that is predominant in this region is Islam. This culture has percolated through the society and in as much as it is a liberal and tolerant (cosmopolitan) setting, the Arabic language, dress, food and particularly architecture are domineering. For an establishment in real estate to be successful therefore, it must be align ed to the available infrastructure and architecture which borrows heavily from the Islamic faith (Poynter Rugman 1982, p 54). A marketing strategy that may also double up as an entry strategy in the industry may be to identify and cling on real estate probate leads. Such probate leads are generally available because of the existence of property left behind by a deceased person. Such may be left to their immediate beneficiaries being available as their next of kin, these heirs may quickly want to sell off the property, and thus it may be worthwhile to establish these heirs. These can be easily located from offices of probate attorneys. In cases where the property was owned by a renowned realtor, its acquisition will have the benefit of goodwill and reputation already created by the proceeding owner. Another rather effortless method of marketing real estate products is through the construction of quality assets with spectacularly unique designs. Magnificent designs will market themse lves and quality products shall attract the appropriate levels of clientele in the market. The construction of the Burj Khalifa, for instance by Emaar (one of the most renown property developers in the UAE) cost 1 Billion US Dollars but since it is the world’s largest sky crapper it has attracted international attention from the media and architects, a factor that has marketed it not only locally but also abroad. The use of the internet and local media may also be a helpful and powerful marketing medium for advertising. Advertisements may be placed on either local or online newspapers or through the use of other realtors and agencies. The use of the internet as a marketing medium is greatly boosted by the developed telecommunications infrastructure in the United Arab Emirates. The level of internet spread is now 2.4 users per subscription and this extensiveness in use makes it a strategic source of marketing and publicity. The internet contention is also largely considered sa fe because it is usually filtered and regulated by requisite authorities to discourage sexual materials and religious profaning sentiments, views or ideas. International Business Risks The economy of particularly Dubai was hugely affected by the events in Wall Street in the global economic downturn that was witnessed from the year 2007 to 2010. These resulted in the average economy decreasing slightly to up to about 4%. Since majority of the world’s economic crisis may be difficult to control, the only reasonable way that seems practically reasonable to apply in the mitigation of enterprise risk is diversification. Since such forms of financial risks have far reaching effects, investors are expected to diversify their portfolios to avoid subsequent losses in their investments in the country. In real estate for instance, diversity may take the form of constructing not only commercial premises but also residential and religious or public properties so that when the market busin ess is low for private home owners (like the situation was in the United States with home mortgages) revenues can be obtained from other market sectors like hotel and tourism. Political risk may be minimized by ensuring that the entity conforms to the political philosophies of the country where it operates. The politics of the UAE are fairly stable and thus upheavals and major revolutions are uncommon, however with the advent of religious fundamentalism and terror movement killings in the name of religion, the entity must be positioned in a way that it will not contravene any religious or political doctrines that are largely viewed as being against the prevailing faith (Nausoh 2009, p. 25). A potential risk of property investment in the UAE may also be associated with the oversupply of properties in the form of houses, commercial buildings and other rental premises. The available infrastructure is being exceedingly attractive to many investors and with barriers to cross border forei gn direct investments lessening, this may cause many players to saturate the industry. The result of this could be the witnessing of decreasing yields or stagnating prices of properties. This is however only a long run possibility because in the current assessment, no such saturation is visible especially in the minor Emirates (Roth Morrison 1992, p 751) The economy of the country and indeed of many neighbors in the region has been built around petroleum exports, without any immediate plans to diversify the economy, a petroleum glut or a decrease in the cost of petrol products including gas worldwide may cause a massive indention of the country’s economy. The Emirate of Dubai has foreseen this potential risk and thus tried to augment the petroleum input in its GDP with a developed banking and commercial sector as well as improved tourism. The opinion of many analysts on this subject however is that as long as the oil prices remain at $ 35 per barrel and above, this risk may be ignored, but the future is always uncertain (Salisu 1991, p. 191). Therefore, the United Arab Emirates provides good and diversified opportunities for any foreign investor to invest in. in addition the rules, policies and regulations have made it easier for both the investor and the Emirates serve their interests without any conflict either economically, politically or socially. Ball, D, McCulloch, W, Geringer, J, Minor, M McNett, J 2008, International Business: The Challenges of Global Competition, McGraw-Hill, NY. Balasubramanyam, V, 1985, Foreign direct investment and the International transfer of technology, Current Issues in International Trade, Macmillan, London. David, G 1992, Economic integration and foreign Direct investment in the EC, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 5(2), pp. 10-50). Nasouh, N 2009, Heavy snowfall on Ras Al Khaimah’s Jebel Jais Mountain cluster, Gulf News, Poynter, T Rugman, A 1982, World product mandates: how wil l multinationals respond? Business Quarterly, vol 47, no.3, pp. 54-61. Roth, K Morrison, A 1992, Implementing global strategy: Characteristics of global subsidiary mandates, Journal of International Business Studies, vol 23, no. 4, pp. 715-735. Salisu, M 1991, EP, IS and direct foreign investment in LDCs, International Trade and Global Development, Routledge, London.